Pneumonia's Nemesis: Kenya's Triumph Over Childhood Pneumonia
Pneumonia’s Nemesis: Kenya’s Triumph Over Childhood Pneumonia

In the heart of Kenya, a quiet revolution has been taking place in the fight against childhood pneumonia. For years, pneumonia stood as a silent, deadly adversary, claiming the lives of many young children worldwide. But today, there’s a glimmer of hope—a powerful tool in the form of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV).

It’s a story that unfolds over the past 12 years, beginning in 2011 when Kenya embraced the PCV as a critical addition to its childhood immunisation schedule. Before this breakthrough, pneumonia, responsible for a staggering 14% of all under-five deaths globally, cast a long, ominous shadow over children born in informal settlements.

Lilian Adero, a health worker at Mbagathi County Hospital, vividly recalls the challenging times. “Before the PCVs were introduced, we had so many cases of pneumonia deaths, and our wards used to admit so many pneumonia cases among the children born in the informal settlements. However, after the introduction of PCVs, the situation is now different as pneumonia deaths and hospitalisations have greatly reduced.”

The impact is not just a statistical blip; it’s a lifeline for families across Kenya. Dr. Anne-Maria Macharia, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Kenyatta National Hospital, shares the promising numbers: “In Kenya, there has been a substantial reduction in the incidence of [severe] invasive pneumococcal disease by 70–90% since the introduction of the vaccines in 2011.”

These aren’t just abstract figures. They represent a shift from the grim reality of 2008, where pneumonia claimed the lives of 30,000 children under the age of five in Kenya alone. With the introduction of PCV, hospitalisations due to severe pneumonia have dwindled, and deaths have become less frequent.

The journey, however, isn’t just about statistics; it’s about stories of resilience and survival. Monique Muthwii, a Nairobi-based parent, shares a poignant experience: “It was a case of ‘touch and go’ when my third-born daughter, Sasha, experienced breathing problems. I rushed her to the clinic, and after diagnosis, she was diagnosed with pneumonia. I count myself lucky, as pneumonia is scary and a silent killer.”

As we hear these stories, it becomes clear that PCV isn’t just a vaccine; it’s a guardian angel for parents like Michael Lisalia, who lost friends to pneumonia before the vaccine era. “As a father of three daughters, I’ve ensured that all my children are fully vaccinated. It is the responsibility of every parent to ensure they protect eligible children by availing them for vaccinations on time.”

The PCV success story isn’t limited to Kenya alone. Studies supported by Gavi and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation across Africa and Asia demonstrate the vaccine’s effectiveness. It’s a global effort to understand the impact and provide health systems with evidence-based policy decisions.

As we stand at the crossroads of progress, it’s a call to action—a reminder that immunisation, especially against pneumonia, can be a beacon of hope. Pneumonia may still be a leading infectious cause of mortality for young children globally, but in Kenya, the PCV has sparked a new era of resilience and health—a testament to the power of science and collective effort in safeguarding our most precious resource: our children. 

Reference: Mwaniki M. Childhood pneumonia deaths “greatly reduced” in Kenya following PCV vaccination [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Dec 12]. Available from: 


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